Background: Patients with TB resistant to rifampicin (Rr-TB), and those with additional resistance to fluoroquinolones (pre-XDR-TB), should be treated with bedaquiline-pretomanid-linezolid-moxifloxacin and bedaquiline-pretomanid-linezolid, respectively. However, pretomanid is not yet widely available.
Methods: This is a pragmatic prospective single-arm study investigating the efficacy and safety of 9 mo of bedaquiline-delamanid-linezolid-clofazimine in patients with pre-XDR-TB or Rr-TB unresponsive to Rr-TB treatment in Nigeria.
Results: From January 2020 to June 2022, 14 of 20 patients (70%) successfully completed treatment, five died and one was lost-to-follow-up. No one experienced a treatment-emergent grade three/four event. Treatment success was higher compared with global pre-XDR-TB treatment outcomes.
Conclusions: While pretomanid is unavailable, highly resistant TB can be treated with bedaquiline-delamanid-linezolid-clofazimine.