We present a case of nephrotic syndrome in a 38-year-old man of Ivorian origin. In the search of the cause of his illness an infection with Plasmodium malariae (P. malariae) was diagnosed by serology and by microscopy of a Giemsa thin blood smear which revealed rare gametocytes of P. malariae. Proteinuria significantly diminished within three months after antimalarial treatment. Antibodies against Schistosoma were detected as well. Examination of kidney biopsy revealed a discrete mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. This case highlights that a thorough history-taking may be essential and that infectious diseases should be included in the differential diagnostic thinking process when a nephrotic syndrome is diagnosed.