A retrospective database study of the demographic features and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Diana Sagastume, Elly Mertens, Deogratias Katsuva Sibongwere, Jean-Claude Dimbelolo, Jean Clovis Kalobu Kabundi, Jeroen de Man, Josefien Van Olmen, José L Peñalvo

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review

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BACKGROUND: The Kin-Antwerp project aimed at improving the quality of care provided to patients with diabetes in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa, including the digitalisation of routine clinical data to improve patients' follow-up. We aim to analyse the data of a study population of Kin-Antwerp to characterise their demographic features, assess their achievement of glycemic target over time, and identify groups requiring prioritised attention.

METHODS: We performed a secondary database analysis of routinely collected information from primary care patients with type 2 diabetes followed from 1991 to 2019. Data included demographics (age, sex), anthropometrics (weight, height), clinical parameters (blood pressure, plasma glucose), and anti-diabetic treatments. Achievement of glycemic target, defined as fasting plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, over time was assessed using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model.

RESULTS: Our study population of patients with type 2 diabetes (N = 8976) comprised a higher proportion of women (67%) and patients between 40 and 65 years old (70.4%). At the first follow-up, most patients were on treatment with insulin (56.5%) and had glycemic levels under the target (79.9%). Women presented more often with obesity (27.4%) and high systolic blood pressure (41.8%) than men (8.6% and 37.0%, respectively). Patients had a median follow-up of 1.8 (interquartile range: 0.5-3.4) years. Overall, the odds of achieving glycemic target increased by 18.4% (odds ratio: 1.184, 95% CI: 1.130 to 1.239; p < 0.001) per year of follow-up. Stratified analyses suggested that the odds of achieving glycemic control over time increased among older patients (> 40 years), but not among younger patients (< 40 years).

CONCLUSION: In our study population, an overall poor glycemic control was observed albeit with a modest improvement in the achievement of glycemic target throughout patients' follow-up. Younger patients may benefit from prioritised attention to achieve glycemic targets. Based on the information provided by the database, continue monitoring and improvement of the project Kin-Antwerp is recommended. Introducing further efforts to improve type 2 diabetes management should include robust glycemia-monitoring tools and haemoglobin A1c, as well as further outlining self-management strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number258
JournalBMC Medicine
Issue number1
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology
  • Demography
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis
  • Glycemic Control
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies


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