INTRODUCTION: Following the introduction of option B+ in 2013, and with the perspective of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV by 2025, Cambodia has implemented an integrated active case management (IACM) approach since 2014 to improve the notification and follow-up of all HIV-infected cases including pregnant women, and to ensure access to and use of the full prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service package by HIV-infected pregnant women and their HIV-exposed infants. This study aimed to analyse PMTCT cascade data in 15 operational districts (ODs) implementing the IACM approach in Cambodia.
METHODS: We analysed PMTCT cohort data from 15 ODs implementing IACM approach between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016. We measured key indicators along the PMTCT cascade and compared them to available (cross-sectional) PMTCT indicators during the 2011 to 2013 period.
RESULTS: During the period 2014 to 2016, among 938 identified HIV-infected pregnant women, 308 (32.8%) were tested HIV positive during their pregnancy, 9 (1.0%) during labour, while the remaining 621 (66.2%) were women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who became pregnant. During the study period, 867 (92.4%) of the 938 women received ART during pregnancy and labour. Subsequently, 456 (85.6%) of the 533 HEI born and alive during the study period received 6-week antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis, 390 (76.6%) and 396 (77.8%) of the 509 infants aged six weeks or older received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and HIV-DNA PCR test respectively. Among the 396 HEI who received HIV-DNA PCR test, 7 (1.8%) were found HIV positive. The comparison with cross-sectional PMTCT indicator obtained during the previous 2011 to 2013 period in the same 15 ODs, showed a significant increase in ARV uptake among HIV-infected pregnant women (from 72.3% to 92.4%), in cotrimoxazole uptake (from 41.6% to 73.2%), and in HIV-DNA PCR testing coverage among HEI (from 41.2% to 74.3%).
CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of option B+ and IACM may have contributed to the improvement of the PMTCT cascade in Cambodia. However, some gaps in accessing PMTCT services along the HIV cascade persist and need to be addressed.