Background: Although consensus exists that malaria in pregnancy (MiP) increases the risk of malaria in infancy, and eventually nonmalarial fevers (NMFs), there is a lack of conclusive evidence of benefits of MiP preventive strategies in infants.
Methods: In Burkina Faso, a birth cohort study was nested to a clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of a community-based scheduled screening and treatment of malaria in combination with intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (CSST/IPTp-SP) to prevent placental malaria. Clinical episodes and asymptomatic infections were monitored over 1 year of follow-up to compare the effect of CSST/IPTp-SP and standard IPTp-SP on malaria and NMFs.
Results: Infants born during low-transmission season from mothers receiving CSST/IPTp-SP had a 26% decreased risk of experiencing a first clinical episode (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% confidence interval, .55-0.99]; P = .047). CSST/IPTp-SP interacted with birth season and gravidity to reduce the incidence of NMFs. No significant effects of CSST/IPTp-SP on the incidence of clinical episodes, parasite density, and Plasmodium falciparum infections were observed.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that CSST/IPTp-SP strategy may provide additional protection against both malaria and NMFs in infants during the first year of life, and suggest that malaria control interventions during pregnancy could have long-term benefits in infants.
- Journal Article