An overview of programmatic indicators to monitor the roll-out of HIV preexposure prophylaxis

Eline Wijstma, Jef Vanhamel, Jessika Deblonde, Christiana Nöstlinger, Teymur Noori, Beatrijs Vuylsteke, Marie Laga

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is increasingly implemented in national HIV prevention programmes through routine care. Monitoring will be vital to understand whether programmes succeed in engaging people into using PrEP appropriately, and in reducing the HIV epidemic. Yet, it is currently unclear which indicators are most suited to monitor PrEP programmes’ performance. We therefore aimed to identify and map indicators that are currently used or suggested for monitoring PrEP programmes. We conducted a scoping review based on the framework by Arksey and O’Malley. We combined a systematic search in the peer-reviewed literature with hand-searching grey literature documents describing indicators and strategies that are used or suggested for PrEP monitoring. Only literature published after 2012 was included. No geographical restrictions were set. We charted data on indicator definitions, data sources used, reported experiences with monitoring and any relevant contextual factors. Ultimately, 35 peer-reviewed and 14 grey literature records were included. We identified indicators related to preuptake stages of PrEP, uptake and coverage, and programme impact. The indicators most commonly suggested for national-level monitoring were the number of new and current PrEP users, the number of HIV seroconversions among PrEP users and some variably defined indicators related to continuation and discontinuation of PrEP. Despite its perceived high relevance, studies reported several challenges to routinely monitor the population in need of PrEP and track prevention-effective PrEP use. In conclusion, a variety of indicators is currently used or suggested for monitoring PrEP programmes. Implementing proxy measures that track different aspects of PrEP use over time, and making synergies with research more explicit, could be used as strategies to obtain more granular insights into trends revealed by routine monitoring.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Humans
  • HIV Infections/prevention & control
  • Geography


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