Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus prevalence in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

Fleur van Aar, Sofie H Mooij, Marianne van der Sande, Arjen G C L Speksnijder, Ineke G Stolte, Chris J L M Meijer, Dominique W M Verhagen, Audrey J King, Henry J C de Vries, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with anogenital cancer, which is especially common in HIV-infected MSM. We assessed HPV prevalence and determinants in MSM.

DESIGN: Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study.

METHODS: MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants completed risk-factor questionnaires. HPV DNA was analyzed in anal and penile shaft self-swabs and genotyped using a sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay (SPF10-PCR-DEIA-LiPA25-system). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess determinants of high-risk HPV infection.

RESULTS: MSM (n = 778) were recruited in 2010-2011, of whom 317 (41%) were HIV-infected. Prevalence of anal high-risk HPV infection was 45% in HIV-negative versus 65% in HIV-infected MSM (P <0.001). HPV-16 was the most frequently detected type and was more common in HIV-infected MSM (13% in HIV-negative and 22% in HIV-infected MSM; P = 0.001). Prevalence of penile high-risk HPV infection was 16% in HIV-negative and 32% in HIV-infected MSM (P <0.001). In multivariable analyses, HIV infection remained associated with anal [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.2; 1.8-2.7] and penile (aOR 2.0; 1.4-2.9) high-risk HPV infection. Higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with anal and penile high-risk HPV in HIV-negative, but not HIV-infected MSM. Receptive anal intercourse was associated with anal high-risk HPV in HIV-infected MSM.

CONCLUSION: Anal and penile high-risk HPV infections are very common in MSM. HIV infection is a strong and independent determinant for anal and penile high-risk HPV infection. Determinants for HPV infection appear to differ between HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number18
Pages (from-to)2921-2931
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anus Diseases/epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • DNA, Viral/genetics
  • Genotyping Techniques
  • HIV Infections/complications
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands/epidemiology
  • Papillomaviridae/classification
  • Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology
  • Penile Diseases/epidemiology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


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