Burden of influenza and influenza-associated pneumonia in the first year of life in a prospective cohort study in Managua, Nicaragua

Lionel Gresh, Guillermina Kuan, Nery Sanchez, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Sergio Ojeda, Marlon Melendez, Roger Lopez, Emily T Martin, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Joseph Bresee, Eva Harris, Angel Balmaseda, Aubree Gordon

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major public health problem worldwide; however, relatively little is known about influenza in tropical regions, especially for infants. Additional information is required to inform public health policy making, in particular vaccination guidelines.

METHODS: Between September 2011 and July 2013, we enrolled newborns into the Nicaraguan Birth Cohort Study. Infants were provided primary medical care and actively followed for reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza virus infection when presenting with influenza-like illness or undifferentiated fever. This report presents data pertaining to the first year of life.

RESULTS: Of the 518 children enrolled in the study, 441 participated throughout their first year of life, 71 were withdrawn, and 6 died. Overall, 13% of the participants experienced at least 1 laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection. The overall incidence of influenza was 15.5 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 12.2-19.5]. Infants aged 6-11 months experienced significantly higher rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza than infants aged 0-5 months (incidence rate ratio: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3-3.4). The overall incidence of pneumonia was 52.6 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI: 46.3-59.6). Three percent of the pneumonia cases were influenza associated, and the incidence of influenza-associated pneumonia and hospitalization was 1.7 (95% CI: 0.9-3.5) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.03-1.55) cases per 100 person-years, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant burden of influenza and influenza-associated severe respiratory outcomes in infants. Our results support the need to explore the potential value of vaccinating pregnant women and infants aged >6 months, as recommended by the World Health Organization in 2012.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPediatric Infectious Diseases Journal
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)152-6
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Influenza, Human/complications
  • Male
  • Nicaragua/epidemiology
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies


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