Case report: atypical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis: two cases from northwest Ethiopia

Rezika Mohammed, Helina Fikre, Tigist Mekonnen, Bewketu Abebe, Arega Yeshanew, Ermias Diro, Johan van Griensven

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-article

Abstract

Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Leishmania donovani complex. Atypical cases of leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection have been documented in case reports, mostly associated with gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and skin involvement. We report two VL cases with atypical localizations not reported from east Africa before, both diagnosed and treated at the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center, Gondar, Ethiopia. The first case was an HIV-infected patient with scrotal and penile involvement. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen and the scrotum. The second case was an immunocompetent individual with esophageal, laryngeal, and pharyngeal involvement and facial lesions. Leishmania parasites were detected in the spleen, skin, and esophageal biopsies. Current evidence suggests atypical presentation can occur in patients irrespective of their HIV status. Therefore; we suggest a high index of suspicion for VL among clinicians working in endemic areas of Ethiopia.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
ISSN0002-9637
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2021

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