We report a case of acquired fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance under short-course multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. The patient was managed at Kabutare hospital, one of the two specialized MDR-TB clinics in Rwanda. A low dose of moxifloxacin was used in the first three critical months. Acquired resistance was identified at the ninth month of treatment, 3 months after stopping kanamycin in a strain initially susceptible only to FQs, kanamycin, and clofazimine. Fluoroquinolone resistance was detected in the same month by deep sequencing as routinely used second-line line probe assay and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. High-dose FQ, preferably gatifloxacin, should be used to maximize effectiveness.