African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major disease of cattle in Togo and its control is essentially based on chemotherapy. However, because of excessive use of trypanocides during the past decades, chemo-resistance in the parasites has developed. In order to assess the current situation of AAT and resistance to trypanocidal drugs in Northern Togo, a study was conducted on cattle from December 2012 to August 2013 in the regions of Kara and Savanes. An initial cross-sectional survey was carried out in 40 villages using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT). Out of these, 5 villages with a trypanosome prevalence of >10% were selected for a block treatment study (BT) with diminazene diaceturate (DA: 3.5mg/kg for a 14-day follow-up) and isometamidium chloride (ISM: 0.5mg/kg for a 28-day follow-up). Positive blood samples collected during the parasitological surveys and an equivalent number of negatives were further analyzed by PCR-RFLP for trypanosome species confirmation and molecular diagnosis of resistance to DA in Trypanosoma congolense. The results from 1883 bovine blood samples confirmed a high overall trypanosome prevalence of 10.8% in Northern Togo. PCR-RFLP revealed that T. congolense is the dominant pathogenic trypanosome species (50.5%) followed by T. vivax (27.3%), and T. brucei (16.2%). The BT showed varying levels of treatment failures ranging from 0 to 30% and from 0 to 50% for DA and for ISM respectively, suggesting the existence of resistant trypanosome populations in the study area. Our results show that AAT still represents a major obstacle to the development of cattle husbandry in Northern Togo. In areas of high AAT risk, a community-based integrated strategy combining vector control, rational use of trypanocidal drugs and improving the general condition of the animals is recommended to decision makers.
- Journal Article