Comparable pregnancy outcomes for HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women on antiretroviral treatment in Kenya

Cyrus Mugo, Ruth Nduati, Eric Osoro, Bryan O Nyawanda, Harriet Mirieri, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Jennifer R Verani, Hafsa Jin, Dufton Mwaengo, Brian Maugo, James Machoki, Nancy A Otieno, Cynthia Ombok, Mufida Shabibi, Lydia Okutoyi, John Kinuthia, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Kariuki Njenga, Irene Inwani, Dalton Wamalwa

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on pregnancy outcomes for women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear.

METHODS: Pregnant women in Kenya were enrolled in the second trimester and followed up to delivery. We estimated effects of treated HIV with 3 pregnancy outcomes: loss, premature birth, and low birth weight and factors associated with HIV-positive status.

RESULTS: Of 2113 participants, 311 (15%) were HIV infected and on ART. Ninety-one of 1762 (5%) experienced a pregnancy loss, 169/1725 (10%) a premature birth (<37 weeks), and 74/1317 (6%) had a low-birth-weight newborn (<2500 g). There was no evidence of associations between treated HIV infection and pregnancy loss (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], .65-2.16; P = .57), prematurity (aRR, 1.09; 95% CI, .70-1.70; P = .69), and low birth weight (aRR, 1.36; 95% CI, .77-2.40; P = .27). Factors associated with an HIV-positive status included older age, food insecurity, lower education level, higher parity, lower gestation at first antenatal clinic, anemia, and syphilis. Women who were overweight or underweight were less likely to be HIV infected compared to those with normal weight.

CONCLUSIONS: Currently treated HIV was not significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. HIV-infected women, however, had a higher prevalence of other factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberjiac128
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)678-686
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Abortion, Spontaneous
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
  • Female
  • HIV Infections/complications
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kenya/epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy
  • Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy
  • Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology
  • Premature Birth/epidemiology


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