BACKGROUND: The impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on pregnancy outcomes for women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear.
METHODS: Pregnant women in Kenya were enrolled in the second trimester and followed up to delivery. We estimated effects of treated HIV with three pregnancy outcomes: loss, premature birth, and low birthweight and factors associated with HIV-positive status.
RESULTS: Of 2,113 participants, 311 (15%) were HIV-infected and on ART. Ninety-one of 1,762 (5%) experienced a pregnancy loss, 169/1,725 (10%) a premature birth (<37 weeks), and 74/1,317 (6%) had a low birthweight newborn (<2500 g).There was no evidence of associations between treated HIV infection and pregnancy loss (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.19 [95% confidence interval: 0.65-2.16], p = 0.57), prematurity (1.09 [0.70-1.70], p = 0.69) and low birthweight (1.36 [0.77-2.40], p = 0.27). Factors associated with an HIV-positive status included older age, food insecurity, lower education level, higher parity, lower gestation at first antenatal clinic, anemia, and syphilis. Women who were overweight or underweight were less likely to be HIV infected compared to those with normal weight.
CONCLUSION: Currently treated HIV was not significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. HIV-infected women, however, had a higher prevalence of other factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.