Continuous surveillance of drug-resistant TB burden in Rwanda: a retrospective cross-sectional study

Yves Habimana-Mucyo, Augustin Dushime, Patrick Migambi, Innocent Habiyambere, Jean Claude Semuto Ngabonziza, Tom Decroo

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Background Since the roll-out of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, continuous surveillance can provide an estimate of rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) prevalence, provided high drug susceptibility testing (DST) coverage is achieved. We use national data from Rwanda to describe rifampicin DST coverage, estimate the prevalence of RR-TB and assess its predictors. Methods Routinely collected DST data were entered into an electronic TB case-based surveillance system. DST coverage was calculated among all bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients notified from 1 July 2019 to 30 June 2020 in Rwanda. The prevalence of RR-TB was estimated among those with DST results. Univariable and multivariable analysis was performed to explore predictors for RR TB. Results Among 4066 patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB, rifampicin DST coverage was 95.6% (4066/4251). RR-TB was diagnosed in 73 patients. The prevalence of RR-TB was 1.4% (53/3659; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.89%) and 4.9% (20/406; 95% CI 3.03 to 7.51%) in new and previously treated TB cases, respectively. Predictors of RR-TB were: (1) living in Kigali City (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.65, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.65); (2) previous TB treatment (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.14 to 6.19); and (3) close contact with a known RR-TB patient (aOR 11.37, 95% CI 4.19 to 30.82). Conclusions High rifampicin DST coverage for routine reporting allowed Rwanda to estimate the RR-TB prevalence among new and previously treated patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Health
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • prevalence
  • rifampicin-resistant TB
  • surveillance
  • surveys
  • Xpert MTB
  • RIF


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