Objectives Rising antimicrobial resistance is a major threat worldwide. WHO has developed a Global Action Plan and has urged all countries to develop and implement a National Action Plan. We analysed the implementation of the Cameroon National Action Plan by identifying the prioritised activities and assessing possible challenges which could limit implementation. Methods We conducted a review of national documents on the control of antimicrobial resistance, including regulations, policies and guidelines and assessed the health system structure. Publications and other supporting documents were obtained by a systematic literature search. We applied the policy analysis triangle framework and the theory of change to analyse the National Action Plan, actors involved and the process of implementation. Results The National Action Plan consisted of six strategic objectives, with the first five being a direct translation of the five pillars of the Global Action Plan. The related activities were to be implemented using a phased approach with allocated targets for each year. Several gaps were identified. There was no timeline of activities set per year, the chronology of activities was not consistent, there were no activities or objectives to ensure the sustainability of the National Action Plan like creating awareness on antimicrobial resistance and the indicators for impact evaluation were not included. Among the actors involved, the Ministry of Public Health had the highest interest in the implementation as the lead stakeholder to oversee the overall implementation. However, there was no clear source of funding, and stakeholders at the primary level of the various sectors responsible for implementation were not clearly defined. Conclusion Despite adequate multisectoral collaboration within the prioritised activities relevant to Cameroon, more is needed for effective implementation of the National Action Plan. The timeline of the different activities, as well as the involvement of key stakeholders at the primary level, needs to be improved. The government's overall commitment to healthcare should be increased and implementation of an action plan should commence at the district or regional level, while challenges in mobilising the necessary funds need to be overcome.
- antimicrobial resistance
- National Action Plan
- policy implementation analysis