Desirable cytolytic immune effector cell recruitment by interleukin-15 dendritic cells

Heleen H. Van Acker, Ottavio Beretta, Sebastien Anguille, Lien De Caluwe, Angela Papagna, Johan M. Van den Bergh, Yannick Willemen, Herman Goossens, Zwi N. Berneman, Viggo F. Van Tendeloo, Evelien L. Smits, Maria Foti, Eva Lion

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


Success of dendritic cell (DC) therapy in treating malignancies is depending on the DC capacity to attract immune effector cells, considering their reciprocal crosstalk is partially regulated by cell-contact-dependent mechanisms. Although critical for therapeutic efficacy, immune cell recruitment is a largely overlooked aspect regarding optimization of DC vaccination. In this paper we have made a head-to-head comparison of interleukin (IL)-15-cultured DCs and conventional IL-4-cultured DCs with regard to their proficiency in the recruitment of (innate) immune effector cells. Here, we demonstrate that IL-4 DCs are suboptimal in attracting effector lymphocytes, while IL15 DCs provide a favorable chemokine milieu for recruiting CD8(+) T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and gamma delta (Y-delta) T cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that IL-15 DCs exhibit a high expression of chemokines involved in antitumor immune effector cell attraction, while IL-4 DCs display a more immunoregulatory profile characterized by the expression of Th2 and regulatoryT cell-attracting chemokines. This is confirmed by functional data indicating an enhanced recruitment of granzyme B+ effector lymphocytes by IL-15 DCs, as compared to IL-4 DCs, and subsequent superior killing of tumor cells by the migrated lymphocytes. Elevated CCL4 gene expression in IL-15 DCs and lowered CCR5 expression on both migrated Y-delta T cells and NK cells, led to validation of increased CCL4 secretion by IL15 DCs. Moreover, neutralization of CCR5 prior to migration resulted in an important inhibition of Y-delta T cell and NK cell recruitment by IL-15 DCs. These findings further underscore the strong immunotherapeutic potential of IL-15 DCs.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)13652-13665
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • CCL4-CCR5 signaling
  • dendritic cell vaccination
  • Y-delta T cells
  • immune cell recruitment
  • NK cells
  • CD8(+) T-CELLS


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