Diaryltriazines (DATAs) constitute a class of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) that are being investigated for use as anti-HIV microbicides. The aim of the present study was (1) to assess the biopharmaceutical properties of the DATA series, (2) to select the lead candidate as vaginal microbicide and (3) to develop and evaluate gel formulations of the lead candidate. First, the vaginal tissue permeation potential of the different DATAs was screened by performing permeability and solubility measurements. To obtain a suitable formulation of the lead microbicide candidate, several hydroxyethylcellulose-based gels were assessed for their cellular toxicity, stability and ability to enable UAMC01398 epithelial permeation. Also, attention was given to appropriate preservative selection. Because of its favourable in vitro activity, safety and biopharmaceutical profile, UAMC01398 was chosen as the lead microbicide candidate among the DATA series. Formulating UAMC01398 as a vaginal gel did not affect its anti-HIV activity. Safe and chemically stable gel formulations of UAMC01398 (0.02%) included a non-solubilizing gel and a gel containing sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-βCD, 5%) as solubilizing excipient. Inclusion of SBE-βCD in the gel formulation resulted in enhanced microbicide flux across HEC-1A epithelial cell layers, to an extent that could not be achieved by simply increasing the dose of UAMC01398. The applied rational (pre)formulation approach resulted in the development of aqueous-based gel formulations that are appropriate for further in vivo investigation of the anti-HIV microbicide potential of the novel NNRTI UAMC01398.
- Anti-Infective Agents
- Disease Transmission, Infectious
- Drug Compounding
- Drug Stability
- HIV Infections
- Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies