Dietary patterns, nutrient intakes and metabolic conditions among agro-pastoralists in Monduli District, Tanzania

Ahmed Gharib Khamis, Akwilina Wendelin Mwanri, Mbazi Senkoro, Katharina Kreppel, Bassirou Bonfoh, Sayoki Godfrey Mfinanga, Gideon Kwesigabo

Research output: Contribution to journalA2: International peer reviewed article (not A1-type)peer-review

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Background: Unhealthy dietary patterns have contributed to the increase in metabolic syndromes in Tanzania. This study aimed to examine dietary patterns, nutrient intakes and investigate the association with obesity and high blood pressure among adults in agro-pastoral communities in Monduli district, Tanzania.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 283 adults aged from 18 years old. Blood pressure and anthropometry were measured from each participant. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to identify types of dietary patterns. Logistic regression model was used to examine the associations.

Results: Three types of dietary patterns were identified labeled as maize, beans and dairy; meat based; and fruits and vegetables. Higher intake of carbohydrates was found in maize dietary pattern. Meat dietary pattern was associated with higher intake of calcium and protein. Higher intakes of fiber and vitamin B2 was found in the fruits and vegetables dietary pattern. Participants on the third quartile of the maize pattern had higher odds of abdominal obesity (AOR=2.81; 95% CI: 1.09-7.26). Participants in the third and fourth quartiles of meat based pattern had increased odds of abdominal obesity by five (AOR=5.03; 95% CI: 2.31-10) and three folds (AOR=3.07; 95% CI: 1.36-6.92). Participants in the third quartile of fruits and vegetables dietary pattern have lower odds of general obesity (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.9) and abdominal obesity (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.71). No association between dietary patterns and high blood pressure was observed.

Conclusion: Three dietary patterns were identified in agro-pastoral communities. This study suggests that higher adherence to maize, beans and dairy dietary pattern and meat based dietary pattern may increase the risk of general and abdominal obesity. The fruits and vegetables dietary pattern may prevent from obesity. Further investigation is recommended to guide the preventive nutrition interventions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNutrition and Dietary Supplements
Pages (from-to)11-20
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • dietary pattern
  • obesity
  • high blood pressure
  • maize
  • dairy
  • red meat
  • vegetables
  • pastoral
  • FOOD


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