Does insecticide resistance contribute to heterogeneities in malaria transmission in The Gambia?

K.O. Opondo, D. Weetman, M. Jawara, M. Diatta, A. Fofana, F. Crombe, J. Mwesigwa, Umberto D'Alessandro, M.J. Donnelly

    Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review

    20 Downloads (Pure)


    BACKGROUND: Malaria hotspots, areas with consistently higher than average transmission, may become increasingly common as malaria declines. This phenomenon, currently observed in The Gambia, may be caused by several factors, including some related to the local vectors, whose contribution is poorly understood. METHODS: Using WHO susceptibility bioassays, insecticide resistance status was determined in vector populations sampled from six pairs of villages across The Gambia, each pair contained a low and high prevalence village. RESULTS: Three vector species were observed (23.5 % Anopheles arabiensis, 31.2 % Anopheles gambiae, 43.3 % Anopheles coluzzii and 2.0 % An. coluzzii x An. gambiae hybrids). Even at a fine scale, significant differences in species composition were detected within village pairs. Resistance to both DDT and deltamethrin was more common in An. gambiae, most markedly in the eastern part of The Gambia and partly attributable to differing frequencies of resistance mutations. The Vgsc-1014F target site mutation was strongly associated with both DDT (OR = 256.7, (95 % CI 48.6-6374.3, p <0.001) and deltamethrin survival (OR = 9.14, (95 % CI 4.24-21.4, p <0.001). A second target site mutation, Vgsc-1575Y, which co-occurs with Vgsc-1014F, and a metabolic marker of resistance, Gste2-114T, conferred additional survival benefits to both insecticides. DDT resistance occurred significantly more frequently in villages with high malaria prevalence (p = 0.025) though this did not apply to deltamethrin resistance. CONCLUSION: Whilst causality of relationships requires further investigation, variation in vector species and insecticide resistance in The Gambia is associated with malaria endemicity; with a notably higher prevalence of infection and insecticide resistance in the east of the country. In areas with heterogeneous malaria transmission, the role of the vector should be investigated to guide malaria control interventions.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number166
    JournalMalaria Journal
    Number of pages10
    Publication statusPublished - 2016


    • Protozoal diseases
    • Malaria
    • Plasmodium falciparum
    • Vectors
    • Mosquitoes
    • Anopheles
    • Drug resistance
    • Impact
    • Disease transmission
    • Heterogeneity
    • DDT
    • Deltamethrin
    • Frequency
    • Mutations
    • Metabolic mechanisms
    • Markers
    • Gambia
    • Africa-West


    Dive into the research topics of 'Does insecticide resistance contribute to heterogeneities in malaria transmission in The Gambia?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this