Efficacy of Cymelarsan((R)) and Diminasan((R)) against Trypanosoma equiperdum infections in mice and horses

A Hagos, BM Goddeeris, K Yilkal, T Alemu, R Fikru, HT Yacob, G Feseha, F Claes

    Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-article

    Abstract

    Trypanocidal sensitivity studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of Diminazene diaceturate (Diminasan((R))) and Bis (aminoethylthio) 4-melaminophenylarsine dihydrochloride (Cymelarsan((R))) against Trypanosoma equiperdum (isolated from two mares with chronic cases of dourine) 713/943 and 834/940 Dodola strains in experimentally infected mice and horses. Diminasan((R)) at doses from 3.5mg/kg to 28mg/kg and Cymelarsan((R)) at doses of 0.25mg/kg and 0.5mg/kg body weight failed to cure any of the mice, indicating a clear dose dependent relationship in the mean time of relapse observed in mice. Indeed, mice treated with lower doses relapsed after a shorter time than mice treated with higher doses. However, mice treated with Cymelarsan((R)) at doses of 1.0mg/kg and 2.0mg/kg body weight were cured and no parasitemia was observed for 60 days. The efficacy of Cymelarsan((R)) was also tested in horses. Two groups of horses containing two animals each were infected with T. equiperdum 834/940 Dodola strain and treated with Cymelarsan((R)) at a dose rate of 0.25mg/kg and 0.5mg/kg, respectively. Cymelarsan((R)) at 0.25mg/kg and 0.5mg/kg body weight cleared parasitemia within 24h post treatment and none of the animals were found to show relapse throughout the 320 days of observation. The sensitivity of the particular trypanosome strain to Cymelarsan((R)) was also supported by the relative improvement in the mean PCV levels of horses following treatment. A statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in the mean PCV levels of horses treated with Cymelarsan((R)) was observed between day 20 at peak parasitemia and days 40 as well as 60 of observation. The mean PCV levels of horses in the control group progressively decreased within the first 60 days of post infection. Two of the horses in the control group developed chronic form of dourine manifested by genital as well as nervous signs with progressive loss of body condition within 320 days post infection. The efficacy of Cymelarsan((R)) against the chronic form of dourine was confirmed after treatment of one of the control horses with Cymelarsan((R)) at a dose rate of 0.25mg/kg body weight at day 282 post infection. It was noted that the treated horse improved overall body condition and clinical signs such as incoordination of hind legs, weakness and ventral oedema disappeared within 10 days of treatment. Thus, Cymelarsan((R)) was found to be quite effective in curing horses in acute as well as chronic form of dourine. The results obtained from the present study will be important for designing effective control measures against dourine
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalVeterinary Parasitology
    Volume171
    Issue number3-4
    Pages (from-to)200-206
    Number of pages7
    ISSN0304-4017
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Keywords

    • B780-tropical-medicine
    • Animal diseases
    • Protozoal diseases
    • Dourine
    • Trypanosoma equiperdum
    • Horses
    • Mice
    • Treatment
    • Diminazene aceturate
    • Diminasan
    • Cymelarsan
    • Efficacy
    • Drug sensitivity
    • Assessment
    • Relapses

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