Emergence and clonal transmission of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis among patients in Chad

Awa Ba Diallo, Gedeon W. Ossoga, Geraldine Daneau, Seynabou Lo, Richard Ngandolo, Colette Diguimbaye Djaibe, Barou Djouater, Souleymane Mboup, Bouke C. de Jong, Aissatou G. Diallo, Florian Gehre

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Background: Emergence of Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains constitutes a significant public health problem worldwide. Prevalence of MDR tuberculosis from Chad is unavailable to date.

Methods: We collected samples from consecutive TB patients nationwide in the seven major cities of Chad between 2007 and 2012 to characterize drug resistance and the population structure of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains. We tested drug sensitivity using Line Probe Assays and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) were used for second line drugs. We genotyped the isolates using spoligotype analysis and MIRU-VNTR.

Results: A total of 311 cultures were isolated from 593 patients. The MDR prevalence was 0.9% among new patients and 3.5% among retreatment patients, and no second line drug resistance was identified. The distribution of genotypes suggests a dissemination of MDR strains in the Southern city of Moundou, bordering Cameroon and Central African Republic.

Conclusion: Emerging MDR isolates pose a public health threat to Southern Chad, with risk to neighboring countries. This study informs public health practitioners, justifying the implementation of continuous surveillance with DST for all retreatment cases as well as contacts of MDR patients, in parallel with provision of adequate 2nd line regimens in the region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number579
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • MDR
  • Molecular characterization
  • Chad


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