Evaluation of the performance of OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 test among decedents in Kisumu, Kenya

V Opollo, E Nyakeriga, L Kingwara, A Sila, M Oguta, Boaz Oyaro, D Onyango, FO Mboya, A Waruru, P Musingila, M Mwangome, LM Nyagah, C Ngugi, S Sava, W Waruiru, PW Young, M Junghae

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


Estimating cause-related mortality among the dead is not common, yet for clinical and public health purposes, a lot can be learnt from the dead. HIV/AIDS accounted for the third most frequent cause of deaths in Kenya; 39.7 deaths per 100,000 population in 2019. OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 has previously been validated on oral fluid and implemented as a screening assay for HIV self-testing in Kenya among living subjects. We assessed the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 for HIV screening among decedents.

Trained morticians collected oral fluid from 132 preembalmed and postembalmed decedents aged >18 months at Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital mortuary in western Kenya and tested for HIV using OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2. Test results were compared with those obtained using the national HIV Testing Services algorithm on matched preembalming whole blood specimens as a gold standard (Determine HIV and First Response HIV 1-2-O). We calculated positive predictive values, negative predictive values, area under the curve, and sensitivity and specificity of OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 compared with the national HTS algorithm.

OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 had similar sensitivity of 92.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 75.7 to 99.1] on preembalmed and postembalmed samples compared with the gold standard. Specificity was 97.1% (95% CI: 91.9 to 99.4) and 95.2% (95% CI: 89.2 to 98.4) preembalming and postembalming, respectively. Preembalming and postembalming positive predictive value was 89.3% (95% CI: 71.8 to 97.7) and 83.3% (95% CI: 65.3 to 94.4), respectively. The area under the curve preembalming and postembalming was 94.9% (95% CI: 89.6 to 100) and 93.9% (95% CI: 88.5 to 99.4), respectively.

The study showed a relatively high-performance sensitivity and specificity of OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 test among decedents, similar to those observed among living subjects. OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 presents a convenient and less invasive screening test for surveillance of HIV among decedents within a mortuary setting.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)282-287
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • HIV
  • HIV mortality surveillance
  • OraQuick
  • Minimally invasive HIV testing
  • Rapid testing


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