In recent years Bamako has been faced with an emerging threat from multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Whole genome sequence analysis was performed on a subset of 76 isolates from a total of 208 isolates recovered from tuberculosis patients in Bamako, Mali between 2006 and 2012. Among the 76 patients, 61(80.3%) new cases and 15(19.7%) retreatment cases, 12 (16%) were infected by MDR-TB. The dominant lineage was the Euro-American lineage, Lineage 4. Within Lineage 4, the Cameroon genotype was the most prevalent genotype (n = 20, 26%), followed by the Ghana genotype (n = 16, 21%). A sub-clade of the Cameroon genotype, which emerged similar to 22 years ago was likely to be involved in community transmission. A sub-clade of the Ghana genotype that arose approximately 30 years ago was an important cause of MDR-TB in Bamako. The Ghana genotype isolates appeared more likely to be MDR than other genotypes after controlling for treatment history. We identified a clade of four related Beijing isolates that included one MDR-TB isolate. It is a major concern to find the Cameroon and Ghana genotypes involved in community transmission and MDR-TB respectively. The presence of the Beijing genotype in Bamako remains worrying, given its high transmissibility and virulence.
- MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY