Malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-Hydroxy-2-(E)-Nonenal (HNE) and 4-Hydroxy-2-(E)-Hexenal (HHE) are reactive aldehydes found in foods and are formed due to decomposition of polyunsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides. In the present study, sixteen food categories were analyzed for the aforementioned aldehydes and in combination with consumption data obtained from a national representative sample of the Belgian population, a quantitative exposure assessment was performed. MDA was detected above the detection limit in 84% of the analyzed samples while HNE and HHE in 63% and 16% of the samples respectively. Consumption of dry nuts, fried snacks, French fries and cured minced meat products were found to contribute the most to the intake of MDA and HNE. Intake of HHE from the foods analyzed was found not to be significant. An evaluation of any potential risk related to the intake of the studied aldehydes through the studied foods was performed by applying the threshold of toxicological concern concept. No risk to human health could be identified related to the consumption of these foods for the vast majority of the consumers, with the only exception of a small proportion (3.8%) of those who consume cured and minced raw meat, that could be at risk.