Factors associated with occurrence of salmonellosis among children living in Mukuru slum, an urban informal settlement in Kenya

Cecilia Mbae, Moses Mwangi, Naomi Gitau, Tabitha Irungu, Fidelis Muendo, Zilla Wakio, Ruth Wambui, Susan Kavai, Robert Onsare, Celestine Wairimu, Ronald Ngetich, Frida Njeru, Sandra Van Puyvelde, John Clemens, Gordon Dougan, Samuel Kariuki

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    Background In Kenya, typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis present a huge burden of disease, especially in poor-resource settings where clean water supply and sanitation conditions are inadequate. The epidemiology of both diseases is poorly understood in terms of severity and risk factors. The aim of the study was to determine the disease burden and spatial distribution of salmonellosis, as well as socioeconomic and environmental risk factors for these infections, in a large informal settlement near the city of Nairobi, from 2013 to 2017. Methods Initially, a house-to-house baseline census of 150,000 population in Mukuru informal settlement was carried out and relevant socioeconomic, demographic, and healthcare utilization information was collected using structured questionnaires.Salmonellabacteria were cultured from the blood and faeces of children <16 years of age who reported at three outpatient facilities with fever alone or fever and diarrhea. Tests of association between specificSalmonellaserotypes and risk factors were conducted using Pearson Chi-Square (chi(2)) test. Results A total of 16,236 children were recruited into the study. The prevalence of bloodstream infections by Non-TyphoidalSalmonella(NTS), consisting ofSalmonellaTyphimurium/ Enteriditis, was 1.3%;SalmonellaTyphi was 1.4%, and this was highest among children <16 years of age. Occurrence ofSalmonellaTyphimurium/ Enteriditis was not significantly associated with rearing any domestic animals. Rearing chicken was significantly associated with high prevalence ofS.Typhi (2.1%;p = 0.011). The proportion of children infected withSalmonellaTyphimurium/ Enteriditis was significantly higher in households that used water pots as water storage containers compared to using water directly from the tap (0.6%). Use of pit latrines and open defecation were significant risk factors forS.Typhi infection (1.6%;p = 0.048). The proportion ofSalmonellaTyphimurium/ Enteriditis among children eating street food 4 or more times per week was higher compared to 1 to 2 times/week on average (1.1%;p = 0.032). Conclusion Typhoidal and NTS are important causes of illness in children in Mukuru informal settlement, especially among children less than 16 years of age. Improving Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) including boiling water, breastfeeding, hand washing practices, and avoiding animal contact in domestic settings could contribute to reducing the risk of transmission ofSalmonelladisease from contaminated environments.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number422
    JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
    Issue number1
    Number of pages12
    Publication statusPublished - 2020


    • Invasive salmonellosis
    • children
    • Socioecomic
    • Environmental
    • Risk factors
    • Informal settlement
    • Nairobi
    • Kenya
    • FEVER
    • BURDEN


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