Failure or relapse predictors for the STREAM Stage 1 short regimen for RR-TB

STREAM Sub-study Collaborators

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BACKGROUND: STREAM (Standardised Treatment Regimens of Anti-tuberculosis drugs for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis) Stage 1 demonstrated non-inferior efficacy of a short regimen for rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) compared to a long regimen as recommended by the WHO. The present paper analyses factors associated with a definite or probable failure or relapse (FoR) event in participants receiving the Short regimen.

METHODS: This analysis is restricted to 253 participants allocated to the Short regimen and is based on the protocol-defined modified intention to treat (mITT) population. Multivariable Cox regression models were built using backwards elimination with an exit probability of P=0.157, equivalent to the Akaike Information Criterion, to identify factors independently associated with a definite or probable FoR event.

RESULTS: Four baseline factors were identified as being significantly associated with the risk of definite or probable FoR (male sex, a heavily positive baseline smear grade, HIV co-infection and the presence of costophrenic obliteration). There was evidence of association of culture positivity at Week 8 and FoR in a second model and Week 16 smear positivity, presence of diabetes and of smoking in a third model.

CONCLUSION: The factors associated with FoR outcomes identified in this analysis should be considered when determining the optimal shortened treatment regimen.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)753-759
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Recurrence
  • Rifampin/therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy


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