BACKGROUND: Genetic interactions between phytohormones in the control of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana have not been extensively studied. Three phytohormones have been individually connected to the floral-timing program. The inductive function of gibberellins (GAs) is the most documented. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been demonstrated to delay flowering. Finally, the promotive role of brassinosteroids (BRs) has been established. It has been reported that for many physiological processes, hormone pathways interact to ensure an appropriate biological response.
METHODOLOGY: We tested possible genetic interactions between GA-, ABA-, and BR-dependent pathways in the control of the transition to flowering. For this, single and double mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of GAs, ABA, and BRs were used to assess the effect of hormone deficiency on the timing of floral transition. Also, plants that over-express genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes in each biosynthetic pathway were generated and the flowering time of these lines was investigated.
CONCLUSIONS: Loss-of-function studies revealed a complex relationship between GAs and ABA, and between ABA and BRs, and suggested a cross-regulatory relation between GAs to BRs. Gain-of-function studies revealed that GAs were clearly limiting in their sufficiency of action, whereas increases in BRs and ABA led to a more modest phenotypic effect on floral timing. We conclude from our genetic tests that the effects of GA, ABA, and BR on timing of floral induction are only in partially coordinated action.
- Abscisic Acid
- Arabidopsis Proteins
- Biosynthetic Pathways
- Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
- Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
- Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
- Mixed Function Oxygenases
- Plant Growth Regulators
- Plant Proteins
- Plants, Genetically Modified
- Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
- Time Factors
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't