Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that has re-emerged recently and has spread to previously unaffected regions, resulting in millions of infections worldwide. The genus Alphavirus, in the family Togaviridae, contains several members with a similar potential for epidemic emergence. In order for CHIKV to replicate in targeted cell types it is essential for the virus to enter these cells. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the versatile and promiscuous steps in CHIKV binding and entry into human and mosquito host cells. We describe the different entry pathways, receptors, and attachment factors so far described for CHIKV and other mosquito-borne alphaviruses and discuss them in the context of tissue tropism and potential therapeutic targeting.