Neurocysticercosis, Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multi-cyst infections are common in endemic countries although single cyst infection prevail in India. Single cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and non-endemic regions and of single and multi-cyst infected patients for association to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis. T solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T solium endemic and non-endemic regions and those with single cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multi-cyst neurocysticercosis. Multi-cyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple cysts infections to establish and persist. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.