Household dietary diversity and animal source food consumption in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2011 Welfare Monitoring Survey

Abdulhalik Workicho, Tefera Belachew, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Beyene Wondafrash, Carl Lachat, Roosmarijn Verstraeten, Patrick Kolsteren

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    Background: It is imperative to track dietary quality and progress in nutritional outcomes in a population to develop timely interventions. Dietary diversity is a commonly used proxy to assess dietary quality in low-income countries. This study identified predictors of household dietary diversity in Ethiopia and pattern of consumption of animal source food (ASF) among households.

    Methods: Secondary data were analyzed from the 2011 Ethiopian Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS). This survey used a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and economic data. Dietary data were collected using a dietary diversity questionnaire measuring dietary diversity over the past 1 week. A Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) was constructed according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) guidelines. Consumption of ASFs is described by its distribution among the regions and by HDDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify independent predictors for HDDS.

    Results: A total of 27,995 households were included in the analyses. A little over half of the study households (52.2%) had more than four household members, and 75% of households were male headed. The mean HHDS was five food groups. Cereals were the most commonly (96%) consumed food groups. Fish, egg and fruits, on the other hand, were the least consumed food groups. ASFs were consumed in greater proportion among households with higher HDDS. Being part of the higher and middle socio economic strata (P <0.001), literacy (P <0.01), urban residence (P <0.01), male headed household (P <0.01), larger family size (P <0.01) and owning livestock (P <0.01) were positively associated with higher HDDS.

    Conclusions: Considering these findings, nutrition sensitive interventions which address the problem through economic and educational empowerment and modern technologies supporting agricultural practices need to be designed to increase both local production and increased consumption.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1192
    JournalBMC Public Health
    Number of pages11
    Publication statusPublished - 2016


    • Household dietary diversity
    • Animal Source Food consumption
    • Ethiopia

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