Immunogenicity of seasonal inactivated influenza and inactivated polio vaccines among children in Senegal: results from a cluster-randomized trial

Mbayame Niang, Meagan E Deming, Deborah Goudiaby, Ousmane M Diop, Ndongo Dia, Aldiouma Diallo, Justin R Ortiz, Doudou Diop, Kristen D C Lewis, Kathryn E Lafond, Marc-Alain Widdowson, John C Victor, Kathleen M Neuzil

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


Data on influenza vaccine immunogenicity in children are limited from tropical developing countries. We recently reported significant, moderate effectiveness of a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in a controlled, cluster-randomized trial in children in rural Senegal during 2009, a year of H3N2 vaccine mismatch (NCT00893906). We report immunogenicity of IIV3 and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) from that trial. We evaluated hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and polio antibody titers in response to vaccination of three age groups (6 through 35 months, 3 through 5 years, and 6 through 8 years). As all children were IIV naïve, each received two vaccine doses, although titers were assessed after only the first dose for subjects aged 6 through 8 years. Seroconversion rates (4-fold titer rise or increase from <1:10 to ≥1:40) were 74-87% for A/H1N1, 76-87% for A/H3N2, and 54-79% for B/Yamagata. Seroprotection rates (HAI titer ≥ 1:40) were 79-88% for A/H1N1, 88-96% for A/H3N2, and 52-74% for B/Yamagata. IIV responses were lowest in the youngest age group, and they were comparable between ages 3 through 5 years after two doses and 6 through 8 years after one dose. We found that baseline seropositivity (HAI titer ≥ 1:10) was an effect modifier of IIV response. Using a seroprotective titer (HAI titer ≥ 1:160) recommended for IIV evaluation in children, we found that among subjects who were seropositive at baseline, 69% achieved seroprotection for both A/H1N1 and A/H3N2, while among those who were seronegative at baseline, seroprotection was achieved in 11% for A/H1N1 and 22% for A/H3N2. The IPV group had high baseline polio antibody seropositivity and appropriate responses to vaccination. Our data emphasize the importance of a two-dose IIV3 series in vaccine naïve children. IIV and IPV vaccines were immunogenic in Senegalese children.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number47
Pages (from-to)7526-7532
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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