Incidence and risk factors for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients while on antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia

K. Choun, S. Thai, R. Pe, N. Lorent, L. Lynen, J. van Griensven

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Given the lack of detailed studies on tuberculosis (TB) in patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in South-East Asia, we aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors for early (after 6 months of ART) incident TB in Cambodia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients started on ART at a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh (March 2003-December 2010). TB diagnosis was performed according to WHO algorithms. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariate Cox regression modeling. RESULTS: Overall, 2984 patients started ART. The median baseline CD4 count was 89 cells microl(-1) (IQR 25-209), median age 34 years (IQR 29-40). Fifty-three percent of the patients were female. Median follow-up time on ART was 2.4 years. In addition to 932 (31.2%) patients already on TB treatment at ART initiation, 313 (10.5%) developed TB, with an overall incidence rate of 3.9/100 patient-years. Of those developing TB, 179 (6.0%) patients were diagnosed with early TB and 134 (4.5%) with late TB, corresponding with a rate of 13.5 and 2.0 per 100 patient-years respectively. Risk factors for early TB included low body mass index, low baseline CD4 count and low hemoglobin levels. Low on-treatment CD4 counts and hemoglobin levels, being underweight while on ART and prevalent TB were identified as risk factors for late TB. CONCLUSION: The incidence of early TB was high, and predominantly associated with advanced HIV progression markers. Earlier ART initiation and enhanced TB screening prior to and after ART initiation is warranted. Late TB amounts to almost half of the total TB burden, meriting specific preventive and diagnostic approaches.
Original languageEnglish
JournalTransactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)235-242
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Viral diseases
  • HIV
  • AIDS
  • Co-infections
  • Bacterial diseases
  • Tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Antiretrovirals
  • Incidence
  • Associations
  • Risk factors
  • Follow-up
  • Body mass index
  • BMI
  • CD4 lymphocyte count
  • Hemoglobin
  • Disease progression
  • Markers
  • Cambodia
  • Asia-Southeast


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