Incidence of fish-borne trematode infections and associated factors: results from a cohort study in highly endemic communities in northern Vietnam

Thao Thi Bich Nguyen, Veronique Dermauw, Dung Thi Bui, Hafid Dahma, Dung Thuy Le, Hien Thi Thu Nguyen, Dung Trung Do, Pierre Dorny, Bertrand Losson, Olivier Vandenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


Fish-borne trematodes (FiBT) are an important group of zoonotic parasites negatively affecting human health, mainly in Asia. Most studies on FiBT have applied a cross-sectional design, which provides weaker evidence on potential risk factors for transmission than a cohort study. This cohort study aimed to estimate the incidence and identify associated risk factors for FiBT infection in Vietnam. Between April 2018 and May 2019, two communes in Yen Bai province, a highly endemic area for FiBT, were visited for sampling. Participants with a negative stool result for FiBT at baseline, were invited for follow-up and data collection, at months 4, 9, and 13. Stools were examined using Kato-Katz and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration techniques to detect FiBT eggs, whereas a questionnaire was used for interviewing participants to determine the risk factors for FiBT infection during each follow-up period. The incidence risk and the incidence rate were calculated, and univariate and multivariable models were run to identify the risk factors for FiBT. A total of 194 people, negative for FiBT eggs at the baseline survey, were invited to participate in the study, and 111 people agreed to enroll in the follow-up. The incidence risk at months 4, 9, and 13 was 9.0%, 6.4%, and 5.1%, respectively. We finally used data from 95 participants for the risk factor analysis, excluding 16 people lost for the follow-up. Overall, 20 people became infected with FiBT (IR = 21.1%). The incidence rate of FiBT infection was 21.4/100 person-year. In the univariate analysis, consumption of raw fish was the main risk factor (RR = 4.59, 95%CI = 1.95-10.82), followed by being male (RR = 3.41, 95%CI = 1.56-7.45) and drinking alcohol (RR = 3.25, 95%CI = 1.49-7.11). In the multivariable analysis, only consumption of raw-fish dishes was significantly associated with FiBT infection. The people who consumed raw fish were 3.44 (95%CI = 1.11-10.70) times more at risk of infection with FiBT as compared to individuals who did not consume raw fish. It can be concluded that the FiBT incidence is high in the study area. More awareness campaigns are needed to stop eating raw fish in these areas to reduce FBT infection.

Original languageEnglish
JournalParasitology Research
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1415-1425
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2023


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