Setting: All health facility and community malnutrition screening programmes in Tonkolili, a rural Ebola-affected district in Sierra Leone. Objectives: Before the Ebola disease outbreak, Sierra Leone had set a goal to reduce the prevalence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children aged <5 years to <0.2%. We compared the number of children screened, diagnosed and treated for malnutrition before, during and after the outbreak (2013-2016). Design: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Results: Health facility screening declined from 16 805 children per month pre-outbreak to 13 510 during the outbreak (P = 0.02), and returned to pre-outbreak levels after the outbreak. Community-based screening remained stable during the outbreak, and increased by 30% post-outbreak (P < 0.001). The proportion diagnosed with moderate acute malnutrition using mid-upper arm circumference increased from respectively 3.6% and 5.1% pre-outbreak in the community and health facilities to 8.2% and 7.9% post-outbreak (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). The proportion of children diagnosed with SAM using a weight-for-age ratio at health facilities increased from 1.5% pre-outbreak to 3.5% post-outbreak (P = 0.003). On average, for every four children diagnosed with SAM per month, one child completed SAM treatment. Conclusion: After a decline in screening during the Ebola outbreak, diagnoses of acute malnutrition increased post-outbreak. Nutrition programmes need to be strengthened to pre-empt such effects in the event of future Ebola outbreaks.
- Journal Article