BACKGROUND: We determined influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 antibody levels before and after the first wave of the pandemic in an urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
METHODS: We identified a cohort of households by stratified random sampling. We collected baseline serum specimens during July-August 2009, just prior to the initial wave of the 2009 pandemic in this community and a second specimen during November 2009, after the pandemic peak. Paired sera were tested for antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09 virus using microneutralization assay and hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay. A fourfold increase in antibody titer by either assay with a titer of ≥40 in the convalescent sera was considered a seroconversion. At baseline, an HI titer of ≥40 was considered seropositive. We collected information on clinical illness from weekly home visits.
RESULTS: We tested 779 paired sera from the participants. At baseline, before the pandemic wave, 1% overall and 3% of persons >60 years old were seropositive. After the first wave of the pandemic, 211 (27%) individuals seroconverted against A(H1N1)pdm09. Children aged 5-17 years had the highest proportion (37%) of seroconversion. Among 264 (34%) persons with information on clinical illness, 191 (72%) had illness >3 weeks prior to collection of the follow-up sera and 73 (38%) seroconverted. Sixteen (22%) of these 73 seroconverted participants reported no clinical illness.
CONCLUSION: After the first pandemic wave in Dhaka, one in four persons were infected by A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and the highest burden of infection was among the school-aged children. Seroprevalence studies supplement traditional surveillance systems to estimate infection burden.
- Antibodies, Viral/blood
- Child, Preschool
- Cohort Studies
- Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics
- Influenza, Human/epidemiology
- Longitudinal Studies
- Middle Aged
- Seroepidemiologic Studies
- Young Adult