Trichinellosis is an emerging parasitic zoonosis in North Vietnam. In this survey, hunted and farm-bred wild boars as well as synanthropic rats were sampled in two provinces of northwest Vietnam where outbreaks of trichinellosis have recently occurred. Evidence of Trichinella infection was studied by parasitological, serological and molecular methods. The results showed relatively low prevalence of Trichinella spiralis in hunted wild boars (2/62 (3.2%; 95% CI: 0.8- 4.8)) and rats (23/820 (2.8%; 95% CI: 13.7-32.3)). Parasite burdens in the muscle tissues were between 0.1 and 0.03 larvae/g, and 0.1 and 7 larvae/g in wild boars and rats, respectively. Seroprevalence in farm-bred wild boars was negative. The findings of Trichinella-infected rats in 7 of the 20 districts of Dien Bien and Son La provinces suggest that the parasite is circulating in these regions. These results indicate that the local population and health centers should be made aware of the risks of eating raw or undercooked meat dishes prepared from wild animals.