Multilocus genotyping reveals high heterogeneity and strong local population structure of the Plasmodium vivax population in the Peruvian Amazon

P Van den Eede, G Van der Auwera, C Delgado, T Huyse, VE Soto-Calle, D Gamboa, T Grande, H Rodriguez, A Llanos, J Anné, A Erhart, U D'Alessandro

    Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-article

    Abstract

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Peru is one of the Latin American countries with the highest malaria burden, mainly due to Plasmodium vivax infections. However, little is known about P. vivax transmission dynamics in the Peruvian Amazon, where most malaria cases occur. The genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax isolates collected in different communities around Iquitos city, the capital of the Peruvian Amazon, was determined. METHODS: Plasmodium vivax population structure was determined by multilocus genotyping with 16 microsatellites on 159 P. vivax infected blood samples (mono-infections) collected in four sites around Iquitos city. The population characteristics were assessed only in samples with monoclonal infections (n=94), and the genetic diversity was determined by calculating the expected heterozygosity and allelic richness. Both linkage disequilibrium and the genetic differentiation (theta) were estimated. RESULTS: The proportion of polyclonal infections varied substantially by site (11% - 70%), with the expected heterozygosity ranging between 0.44 and 0.69; no haplotypes were shared between the different populations. Linkage disequilibrium was present in all populations (IAS 0.14 - 0.61) but was higher in those with fewer polyclonal infections, suggesting inbreeding and a clonal population structure. Strong population differentiation (theta = 0.45) was found and the Bayesian inference cluster analysis identified six clusters based on distinctive allele frequencies. CONCLUSION: The P. vivax populations circulating in the Peruvian Amazon basin are genetically diverse, strongly differentiated and they have a low effective recombination rate. These results are in line with the low and clustered pattern of malaria transmission observed in the region around Iquitos city
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalMalaria Journal
    Volume9
    Pages (from-to)151
    Number of pages12
    ISSN1475-2875
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Keywords

    • B780-tropical-medicine
    • Protozoal diseases
    • Malaria
    • Plasmodium falciparum
    • Vectors
    • Mosquitoes
    • Anopheles
    • Molecular epidemiology
    • Identification
    • Multilocus
    • Genotyping
    • Heterogeneity
    • Amazona
    • Peru
    • America-Latin

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