Multiple insecticide resistance: an impediment to insecticide-based malaria vector control program

D Yewhalaw, F Wassie, W Steurbaut, P Spanoghe, W Van Bortel, L Denis, DA Tessema, Y Getachew, M Coosemans, L Duchateau, N Speybroeck

    Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review

    12 Downloads (Pure)


    BACKGROUND: Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are key components in malaria prevention and control strategy. However, the development of resistance by mosquitoes to insecticides recommended for IRS and/or ITNs/LLINs would affect insecticide-based malaria vector control. We assessed the susceptibility levels of Anopheles arabiensis to insecticides used in malaria control, characterized basic mechanisms underlying resistance, and evaluated the role of public health use of insecticides in resistance selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Susceptibility status of An. arabiensis was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and propoxur in Ethiopia from August to September 2009. Mosquito specimens were screened for knockdown resistance (kdr) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1(R)) mutations using AS-PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. DDT residues level in soil from human dwellings and the surrounding environment were determined by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. An. arabiensis was resistant to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and malathion, but susceptible to propoxur. The West African kdr allele was found in 280 specimens out of 284 with a frequency ranged from 95% to 100%. Ace-1(R) mutation was not detected in all specimens scored for the allele. Moreover, DDT residues were found in soil samples from human dwellings but not in the surrounding environment. CONCLUSION: The observed multiple-resistance coupled with the occurrence of high kdr frequency in populations of An. arabiensis could profoundly affect the malaria vector control programme in Ethiopia. This needs an urgent call for implementing rational resistance management strategies and integrated vector control intervention.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalPLoS ONE
    Issue number1
    Pages (from-to)e16066
    Publication statusPublished - 2011


    • B780-tropical-medicine
    • Protozoal diseases
    • Malaria
    • Plasmodium falciparum
    • Vectors
    • Mosquitoes
    • Anopheles arabiensis
    • Vector control
    • Control programs
    • Residual spraying
    • Impregnated bednets
    • Long-lasting nets
    • Insecticide resistance
    • Susceptibility
    • DDT
    • Permethrin
    • Deltamethrin
    • Malathion
    • Propoxur
    • kdr
    • Knockdown resistance
    • Alleles
    • Mutations
    • Ethiopia
    • Africa-East


    Dive into the research topics of 'Multiple insecticide resistance: an impediment to insecticide-based malaria vector control program'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this