Multiple mycotoxin exposure of infants and young children via breastfeeding and complementary/weaning foods consumption in Ecuadorian highlands

Johana Ortiz, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Gabriela Astudillo, Adriana Ballesteros, Silvana Donoso, Lieven Huybregts, Bruno De Meulenaer

    Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-article

    Abstract

    The dietary exposure to mycotoxins in Ecuadorian children aged 0-23 months (320 rural and 603 urban) was evaluated based on the intake of breast milk and staple cereals used as complementary/weaning foods. A probabilistic distribution approach by first order Monte Carlo simulation was adopted to assess the locally occurring mycotoxins (aflatoxins M-1 and B-1 in breast milk, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in wheat noodles and oat flakes, and HT-2 toxin in polished rice). Overall, exposure was modest but higher for rural children due to their monotonous diet. Aflatoxin exposure by breast milk intake were of health concern in both areas (Margin of Exposure and Combined Margin of Exposure Index <10,000). Mycotoxin exposure by staple cereals intake was considered tolerable across feeding stages for individual mycotoxin-cereal combination (Hazard Quotient <1) and combined exposure (Hazard Index <1). The major exposure was to HT-2 toxin by rice intake at complementary feeding (15% rural and 4% urban above TDI) and at weaning stage (26% rural and 6% urban above TDI). Since the usual Ecuadorian diet is based on the same staple cereals, risk management actions could lead to a better protection of young children and also ensure higher safety of the recommended breastfeeding practices by protecting nursing mothers.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
    Volume118
    Pages (from-to)541-548
    Number of pages8
    ISSN0278-6915
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2018

    Keywords

    • Exposure assessment
    • Mycotoxins
    • Breast milk
    • Staple cereals
    • Ecuadorian children
    • AFLATOXIN M-1
    • RISK-ASSESSMENT
    • HUMAN HEALTH
    • HUMAN-MILK
    • CHEMICALS
    • MOTHERS
    • GROWTH
    • SAFETY
    • BRAZIL
    • DEOXYNIVALENOL

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