A precise timeframe to differentiate acute schistosomiasis (AS) and chronic schistosomiasis (CS) is not well defined. Based on recent published literature, lung nodular lesions in AS and CS seem to have the same pathophysiology, that is, eggs laid in situ by adult worms, during an ectopic migration. Moreover, the occurrence of lung nodules due to clusters of eggs and the systemic immunoallergic reaction of AS (Katayama syndrome) may be two separate clinical entities, which may overlap during the early phase of infection. Consequently, the classical distinction between AS and CS loses much of its conceptual validity. If adult worms play a more important role in the early phase of the disease the clinical management of AS should probably be revised.