Despite being preventable and treatable, malaria remains a global health concern with approximately 1.2 billion people at high risk of being infected, 90% of whom are in the resource-limited settings of sub-Saharan Africa. The continued decline in malaria cases globally has rekindled the possibility of elimination in certain regions. As humans constitute the main reservoir of malaria, prompt and accurate diagnosis by microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests is part not only of effective disease management but also of control measures. However, for malaria elimination, more sensitive diagnostic tools are needed to detect asymptomatic and sub-microscopic infections that contribute to transmission. Molecular techniques, which involve amplification of nucleic acids, are being developed and modified to suit this purpose. This report provides a summary of the nucleic acid amplification tests that are currently available for diagnosis of malaria, with current improvements and adaptations for use in resource-limited settings.