Population-level macrolide consumption is associated with clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori: an ecological analysis

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Bystander selection has been shown to result in strong population-level correlations between the level of antimicrobial consumption in the general population and resistance to that antimicrobial or similar antimicrobials in a range of bacteria. The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori has been increasing rapidly resulting in increased difficulty to eradicate this infection. Using country- and WHO-world-region-level macrolide resistance data from a systematic review and macrolide consumption data from the MIDAS Quantum data base, we tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of clarithromycin resistance was correlated with macrolide consumption. At a country level, we found these variables to be positively correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.49; P = 0.007). Whilst positive, the correlation between macrolide consumption and primary resistance was not statistically significant at world region level (Spearman's rho = 0.95; P = 0.05). (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Pages (from-to)67-69
Number of pages3
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • pylori
  • Macrolide
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Ecological study

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