OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in 16 visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India. METHODS: Three-stage house-to-house survey of 2020 households to identify and confirm PKDL cases. RESULTS: The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the PKDL cases are discussed in detail. CONCLUSION: PKDL can develop in visceral leishmaniasis patients treated with different anti-leishmanial drugs. Migration of PKDL cases to other villages may expand visceral leishmaniasis-affected areas.