Introduction: the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Entero bacteriaceae (E-ESBLs) is currently a major public health problem in the world and, in particular, in developing countries. In Cameroon, data on E-ESBLs are rare, especially in Garoua and in the northern region of the country. The objective of this study is to document the epidemiology of E-ESBL infections in small children and to explore their associations with possible risk factors.
Methods: this was a cross-sectional, descriptive study conducted from June 14 to September 30, 2018, including small children with suspected urinary tract infections (UTI) attending the outpatient pediatric departments of two health facilities in the city of Garoua. Urine samples were analyzed at the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Pasteur Center of Cameroon, Annex Garoua. Bacterial culture was carried out on Bio-Rad UriSelect® chromogenic agar and the identification was confirmed by bioMérieux API 20E. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the bioMérieux ATB UR gallery and the ESBL phenotype was detected by the double disk synergy method according to the CA-SFM 2013 recommendations. The data was analyzed with the R Statistical Software version 2.15.2.
Results: a total of 57 urine samples were collected from children aged from one month to two years, 37 boys and 20 girls. Bacteria were detected by culture in 20 samples: Escherichia coliwas the most frequently (75 %) isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae(25%). More than half of the infected samples (55%) contained E-ESBL. The presence of an ESBL was significantly associated with previous antibiotic intake up to 3 months prior current UTI (p=0.01664). The E-ESBL strains showed co-resistance to different antibiotics.
Conclusion: this study reveals the important dissemination of E-ESBLs among small children in the community and a high rate of co-resistance to the different antibiotic families commonly used.