BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, with limited data on NTS serovars and antimicrobial resistance in Africa.
METHODS: We determined the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and frequency of antimicrobial resistance among serovars identified in stools of 0-59 month-old children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and controls enrolled in the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study in The Gambia, Mali, and Kenya in 2015-2018, and compared with data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS; 2007-2010) and the GEMS-1A study (2011). Salmonella spp. was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and culture-based methods. Identification of serovars was determined by microbiological methods.
RESULTS: By qPCR, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. among MSD cases was 4.0%, 1.6%, and 1.9% and among controls was 4.6%, 2.4%, and 1.6% in The Gambia, Mali, and Kenya, respectively, during VIDA. We observed year-to-year variation in serovar distribution and variation between sites. In Kenya, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium decreased (78.1% to 23.1%; P < .001) among cases and controls from 2007 to 2018, whereas serogroup O:8 increased (8.7% to 38.5%; P = .04). In The Gambia, serogroup O:7 decreased from 2007 to 2018 (36.3% to 0%; P = .001) but S. enterica serovar Enteritidis increased during VIDA (2015 to 2018; 5.9% to 50%; P = .002). Only 4 Salmonella spp. were isolated in Mali during all 3 studies. Multidrug resistance was 33.9% in Kenya and 0.8% in The Gambia across all 3 studies. Ceftriaxone resistance was only observed in Kenya (2.3%); NTS isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin at all sites.
CONCLUSIONS: Understanding variability in serovar distribution will be important for the future deployment of vaccines against salmonellosis in Africa.
- Child, Preschool
- Infant, Newborn
- Salmonella typhimurium
- Salmonella enteritidis
- Typhoid Fever
- Anti-Infective Agents
- Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology