Prevalence of Salmonella in stool during the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study, 2015-2018

Irene N Kasumba, Helen Powell, Richard Omore, M Jahangir Hossain, Samba O Sow, John Benjamin Ochieng, Henry Badji, Jennifer R Verani, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Sunil Sen, Shamima Nasrin, Jasnehta Permala-Booth, Jennifer A Jones, Anna Roose, Dilruba Nasrin, Ciara E Sugerman, Jane Juma, Alex Awuor, Joquina Chiquita M Jones, Sanogo DohCatherine Okoi, Syed M A Zaman, Martin Antonio, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Clayton Onyango, James Platts-Mills, Jie Liu, Eric Houpt, Kathleen M Neuzil, Karen L Kotloff, Sharon M Tennant

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review

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BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, with limited data on NTS serovars and antimicrobial resistance in Africa.

METHODS: We determined the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and frequency of antimicrobial resistance among serovars identified in stools of 0-59 month-old children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and controls enrolled in the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study in The Gambia, Mali, and Kenya in 2015-2018, and compared with data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS; 2007-2010) and the GEMS-1A study (2011). Salmonella spp. was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and culture-based methods. Identification of serovars was determined by microbiological methods.

RESULTS: By qPCR, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. among MSD cases was 4.0%, 1.6%, and 1.9% and among controls was 4.6%, 2.4%, and 1.6% in The Gambia, Mali, and Kenya, respectively, during VIDA. We observed year-to-year variation in serovar distribution and variation between sites. In Kenya, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium decreased (78.1% to 23.1%; P < .001) among cases and controls from 2007 to 2018, whereas serogroup O:8 increased (8.7% to 38.5%; P = .04). In The Gambia, serogroup O:7 decreased from 2007 to 2018 (36.3% to 0%; P = .001) but S. enterica serovar Enteritidis increased during VIDA (2015 to 2018; 5.9% to 50%; P = .002). Only 4 Salmonella spp. were isolated in Mali during all 3 studies. Multidrug resistance was 33.9% in Kenya and 0.8% in The Gambia across all 3 studies. Ceftriaxone resistance was only observed in Kenya (2.3%); NTS isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin at all sites.

CONCLUSIONS: Understanding variability in serovar distribution will be important for the future deployment of vaccines against salmonellosis in Africa.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue numberSuppl.1
Pages (from-to)S87-S96
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Child
  • Humans
  • Child, Preschool
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant
  • Prevalence
  • Salmonella typhimurium
  • Salmonella enteritidis
  • Typhoid Fever
  • Diarrhea/epidemiology
  • Serogroup
  • Mali/epidemiology
  • Vaccines
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology


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