Prevalence of tuberculosis in adolescents, western Kenya: implications for control programs

Videlis Nduba, Anna H Van't Hoog, Ellen Mitchell, Peter Onyango, Kayla Laserson, Martien Borgdorff

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in adolescents in western Kenya.

METHODS: A cohort study of 5004 adolescents aged 12-18 years was conducted. Adolescents were screened for prevalent TB using clinical criteria, history of TB contact, and a Mantoux test. Cases of suspected TB were investigated through two sputum examinations (microscopy and liquid culture) and chest radiography.

RESULTS: Out of 5004 adolescents enrolled, 1960 (39.2%) were identified with suspected TB, including 1544 with a positive Mantoux (prevalence 1544/4808, 32.1%), 515 with symptoms suggestive of TB (10.3%), and 144 (2.9%) with household TB contact. Sixteen culture-confirmed (definite) and 18 probable pulmonary TB (PTB) cases were identified, reflecting a prevalence estimate of 3.2/1000 (definite) and 6.8/1000 all PTB, respectively. Only one smear-positive case was detected. The case notification rate among 12-18-year-old adolescents for all TB was 101/100000, yielding a patient diagnostic rate of 0.13 (95% confidence interval 0.03-3.7) cases detected per person-year for all TB.

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PTB among adolescents is high, with the majority of cases not detected routinely. Innovative active case finding including the wider use of Xpert MTB/RIF is needed to detect smear-negative TB among adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Pages (from-to)11-7
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infection Control
  • Kenya/epidemiology
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis


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