Background: Foodborne Neglected Zoonotic Helminths (FNZH) are parasites of both economic and public health importance. They include Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, Echinococcus multilocularis and Foodborne trematodes (FBT). FNZH are earmarked for major interventions for control, elimination and eradication. This systematic review highlights the progress towards development of rapid tests for the diagnosis of FNZH since 2010 when they were listed as neglected tropical diseases.
Methodology: A systematic search was conducted in three databases, World of Science, Embase and PubMed using the same search phrase. The search produced 480 hits. Three studies from back referencing were included. Only 22 of these met the inclusion criteria. Data was extracted from these and presented qualitatively.
Results: Twenty-five rapid diagnostic tests were found to have been developed since 2010, eight for diagnosis of T. solium infections, eight for echinococcosis and nine for FBT infections. The rapid tests for diagnosing T. solium infections included six antibody detecting and two antigen detecting tests. They constitute a combination among them, with some tests providing qualitative, others quantitative results. Similarly, seven out of the eight rapid tests developed for Echinococcus infections were antibody detecting tests save for one loop mediated isothermal amplification test. All of them were qualitative tests. For FBT infections, nine rapid tests were described; two antibody and one nucleic acid detecting test for diagnosis of Fascioliasis; three nucleic acid detecting tests for Opisthorchiasis; one antibody detecting test for Paragonimiasis; and for Clonorchiasis, one antibody and one nucleic acid detecting test. The FBT infection rapid tests were all qualitative in nature.
Most of these tests have not undergone field evaluation in endemic areas where they will be used most.
Conclusion: This review describes the development and evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests, while highlighting the need for in depth validations of the tools to determine how well they can perform in endemic areas.
- Taenia solium
- Echinococcus granulosus s.l.
- Echinococcus multilocularis
- Fasciola hepatica
- Fasciola gigantica
- Cystic/alveolar echinococcosis
- (Neuro) Cysticercosis
- Rapid diagnostic tests
- Foodborne neglected zoonotic helminthes
- MEDIATED ISOTHERMAL AMPLIFICATION
- OF-CARE TESTS
- DETECT TAENIA-SOLIUM
- IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC TEST