BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk for severe influenza, yet immune responses to standard-dose intramuscular (IM) influenza vaccine are suboptimal in this population. Intradermal (ID) delivery of influenza vaccine might improve immune response through enhanced stimulation of dendritic cells.
METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial to compare the immunogenicity of off-label standard-dose (15 µg) ID vs standard-dose (15 µg) IM inactive influenza vaccine in HIV-infected men in Bangkok, Thailand. The primary study outcome was seroconversion (minimum titer of 1:40 and ≥4-fold rise in antibody titer) at 1 month postvaccination based on serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against each vaccine strain. Adverse events (AEs) in the 7 days following vaccination were also assessed.
RESULTS: We enrolled 400 HIV-infected participants; 200 were randomly assigned to receive IM and 200 ID vaccine. Vaccine arms were well-balanced with respect to age, CD4 cell count, HIV RNA load, and antiretroviral treatment. Percentage of seroconversion to all (ID 14% vs IM 15%; P = .8) or at least 1 (ID 69% vs IM 68%; P = .7) of the 3 vaccine strains did not differ significantly between ID vs IM vaccine recipients. A higher proportion of participants who received ID vaccine had mild injection-site AEs compared with participants who received IM vaccine (77% vs 27%).
CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences in the immunogenicity of standard-dose ID vs IM influenza vaccine in this HIV-infected population in Thailand. Additional strategies to enhance immune responses to influenza vaccine among HIV-infected persons are needed.
CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01538940.
- Antibodies, Viral/blood
- Double-Blind Method
- Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology
- HIV Infections/complications
- Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
- Homosexuality, Male
- Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage
- Influenza, Human/prevention & control
- Injections, Intradermal/adverse effects
- Injections, Intramuscular/adverse effects
- Middle Aged
- Treatment Outcome
- Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
- Young Adult