BACKGROUND: HIV testing efficiency could be improved by focusing on high yield populations and identifying types of health facilities where people with undiagnosed HIV infection are more likely to attend.
METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of data collected during an integrated TB/HIV active case-finding intervention in Western Kenya. Data were analyzed from health facilities' registers on individuals who reported TB-suggestive symptoms between 1 July and 31 December 2018 and who had an HIV test result within one month following symptom screening. We used logistic regression with general estimating equations adjusting for sub-county level data to identify health facility-level predictors of new HIV diagnoses.
RESULTS: Of 11,376 adults with presumptive TB identified in 143 health facilities, 1038 (9%) tested HIV positive. The median HIV positivity per health facility was 6% (IQR = 2-15%). Patients with TB symptoms were over three times as likely to have a new HIV diagnosis in private not-for-profit facilities compared to those in government facilities (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.40; 95% CI = 1.96-5.90). Patients tested in hospitals were over two times as likely to have a new HIV diagnosis as those tested in smaller facilities (i.e., health centers and dispensaries) (aOR 2.26; 95% CI = 1.60-3.21).
CONCLUSION: Individuals with presumptive TB who attended larger health facilities and private not-for-profit facilities had a higher likelihood of being newly diagnosed with HIV. Strengthening HIV services at these facilities and outreach to populations that use them could help to close the HIV diagnosis gap.
- HIV Infections/diagnosis
- Health Facilities
- Private Sector
- Retrospective Studies