Regional heterogeneity of malaria prevalence and associated risk factors among children under five in Togo: evidence from a national malaria indicators survey

Gountante Kombate, Wakpaouyare Gmakouba, Susana Scott, Komi Ameko Azianu, Didier Koumavi Ekouevi, Marianne A B van der Sande

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and death among children less than 5 years of age. In Togo, despite intensification of malaria control interventions, malaria remained highly prevalent, with significant heterogeneity from one region to another. The aim of this study is to explore further such regional differences in malaria prevalence and to determine associated risk factors.

METHODS: Data from a 2017 cross-sectional nationally representative malaria indicator survey was used. Children aged 6-59 months in selected households were tested for malaria using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), confirmed by microscopy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed using Generalized Linear Models.

RESULTS: A total of 2131 children aged 6-59 months (1983 in rural areas, 989 in urban areas) were enrolled. Overall 28% of children tested positive for malaria, ranging from 7.0% in the Lomé Commune region to 4% 7.1 in the Plateaux region. In multivariate analysis, statistically significant differences between regions persisted. Independent risk factors identified were higher children aged (aOR = 1.46, 95% CI [1.13-1.88]) for those above 24 months compared to those below; households wealth quintile (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI [0.11-0.41]) for those richest compared to those poorest quintiles; residence in rural areas (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.32-3.13]).

CONCLUSION: Interventions that target use of combined prevention measures should prioritise on older children living in poorest households in rural areas, particularly in the regions of high malaria prevalence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number168
JournalMalaria Journal
Issue number1
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Malaria/epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Togo/epidemiology

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