Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to the most common form of dementia in elderly people. Modifiable dietary and lifestyle factors could either accelerate or ameliorate the aging process and the risk of developing AD and other age-related morbidities. Emerging evidence also reports a potential link between oral and gut microbiota alterations and AD. Dietary polyphenols, in particular wine polyphenols, are a major diver of oral and gut microbiota composition and function. Consequently, wine polyphenols health effects, mediated as a function of the individual's oral and gut microbiome are considered one of the recent greatest challenges in the field of neurodegenerative diseases as a promising strategy to prevent or slow down AD progression. This review highlights current knowledge on the link of oral and intestinal microbiome and the interaction between wine polyphenols and microbiota in the context of AD. Furthermore, the extent to which mechanisms bacteria and polyphenols and its microbial metabolites exert their action on communication pathways between the brain and the microbiota, as well as the impact of the molecular mediators to these interactions on AD patients, are described.